Coffee is one of the most-consumed beverages in the world.
Coffee is thought to have been discovered in the NorthEast of Ethiopia, Africa. The earliest evidence of coffee drinking dates back to the 15 century and originates in Yemen, southern Arabia. The coffee then spread in to Italy followed by the rest of Europe and then slowly on to the rest of the world.
Coffee has played a very important role in various societies over the years, in some countries it is reported to have been used in religious ceremonies. It has been banned in some places around the world, such as the Ethiopian Church- no longer were the churches regulars allowed to use coffee anymore. Coffee was also banned in Ottoman, Turkey in the 17 century. It is reported that this was for political reasons and was associated with unsavory political activities on other continents.
Coffee is a very important export commodity, as recently as 2004 coffee was ranked the top agricultural export for 12 countries (FAO statistical yearbook 2004 vol. 1/1) and the seventh largest legal agricultural export in 2005 (FAOSTAT core trade data 2007). Not many people are aware that the Coffee Berry is produced by numerous species of Genus Coffea, the two main types of coffee bean are Coffea Canephora and Coffea Arabica.
When we take the first mouthful from a nice cup of coffee, it has been on a very long journey. Firstly they are grown as coffee berries, they then undergo numerous processes including the seed being removed. The seed is what goes on to eventually become the coffee bean. Once the seed has been removed, it undergoes another process know as roasting. The green bean is roasted and influences the bean both chemically and physically. Coffee beans are then graded as per their color, dark, medium and light.
All that’s left is for the coffee to be ground and brewed to give us the final substance – a nice cup of coffee. There are other alternatives including instant and canned coffee. Instant has been freeze dried into a soluble powder or granules that can be almost instantly become dissolved in hot water. Canned Coffee on the other hand is popular in Asian countries for many years and are available in convenience and grocery stores.
As the years have gone by coffee has been made available to suit more tastes. Decaffeinated coffee is available for those who do not have caffeine. A very simple process know as ‘The Swiss Water Process’. All that happens is the pre-roasted coffee bean is soaked in hot water along with a solvent to dissolve the caffeine containing oils. Extracted caffeine is known to have been bought by pharmaceutical companies.
Finally, coffee ingestion is huge and is produced on a mammoth scale. Brazil is the largest coffee exporting nation followed by Vietnam and then Indonesia.
History of the Espresso Machine
First patent (vol. 33 n. 256, 1884) for the Espresso Machine, by Mr. Angelo MoriondoThe original machine for making espresso coffee, was patented and built by Mr. A. Moriondo of Italy, who demonstrated a working example in 1884. He had been granted the Patent no. 33/256 dated 16th May 1884, as documented by the “Bollettino delle privative industriali del Regno d’Italia”, 2nd Series, Volume 15, Year 1884, pages 635 – 655. A certificate of industrial title was awarded to Mr. M. Angelo, of Turin, for an invention called “New steam machinery for the economic and instantaneous confection of coffee beverage, method ‘A. Moriondo’, Plate CXL”.
Seventeen years later, in 1901, the machine was improved by the Milanese Luigi Bezzera, who patented his improvements. Luigi Bezzera was just a mechanic and not an engineer. In 1905 the patent was bought by Desiderio Pavoni who founded the “La Pavoni” company and began to produce the machine industrially (one a day) in a small workshop in Via Parini in Milan.